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Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (Red Spot Disease)

What is it?

Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (ELOLS10在线直播下注), also known as red spot disease (RSD) and mycotic granulomatoses (MG), is a seasonal epizootic condition of great importance in wild and farmed freshwater and estuarine fish.

It was first reported in farmed ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Japan in 1971. It was later reported in estuarine fish, particularly grey mullet in eastern Australia in 1972.

LOLS10在线直播下注 The fungus involved in ELOLS10在线直播下注 is also known variously as Aphanomyces invadans, A. piscicida, A. invaderis and ERA (ELOLS10在线直播下注-related Aphanomyces) . Rhabdoviruses have also been associated with particular outbreaks, and secondary Gram-negative bacteria invariably infect ELOLS10在线直播下注 lesions.

Where and When Might it Occur?

The outbreak has extended its range through Papua New Guinea into South-East and south Asia, and recently into west Asia, where it has now reached Pakistan.

Outbreaks of ulcerative disease in menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) in the United States of America have been shown to be very similar to ELOLS10在线直播下注 in Asia.

Region-wide, over 50 species of fish have been confirmed by histological diagnosis to be affected by ELOLS10在线直播下注, but some important culture species, including tilapia, milk fish and Chinese carp, have been shown to be resistant.

ELOLS10在线直播下注 occurs mostly during periods of low temperatures and after periods of heavy rainfall. These conditions favour sporulation of Aphanomyces invadans, and low temperatures have been shown to delay the inflammatory response of fish to fungal infection.

ELOLS10在线直播下注 is transmitted from one fish to another through the water supply.

LOLS10在线直播下注 The susceptible life stages of the fish are usually juvenile and young adults. There is no report of ELOLS10在线直播下注 being found in fish fry or fish larvae


When ELOLS10在线直播下注 spreads into a fish culture pond, high morbidity (>50%) and high mortality (>50%) might be observed in those years that have a long cold season, with water temperatures between 18 and 22C. Some infected fish may recover when the cold period is over.

ELOLS10在线直播下注 can be readily detected in diseased fish specimens collected from ELOLS10在线直播下注-infected areas using histological techniques. Fish may exhibit red spots or small ulcers.

LOLS10在线直播下注 There is no information to indicate that fish can be lifelong carriers of A. invadans. Generally, most infected fish die during an outbreak. Although some mild or moderate ELOLS10在线直播下注infected fish could recover, they are unlikely to be lifelong carriers.


LOLS10在线直播下注Control of ELOLS10在线直播下注 in natural waters is probably impossible. In outbreaks occurring in small, closed water-bodies, liming water and improving water quality, together with removal of infected fish, is often effective in reducing mortalities.

Source: OIE