陕西体彩Shape 澳客足彩网Shape 荣鼎福彩下载author 新利18appShape 注册下载app送18chevron 恒峰彩票appcross 自助领取彩金38Shape 三分快3和值Shape 龙虎手机投注Shape 极速体育Group 乐动体育足球khamburger 亚洲城Bethome 大富豪电玩Group 拉菲二登录magnify 双色球走势图Shape ku体育网站Shape 全民福利彩票Shape 万博体彩rss 恒峰彩票平台Shape

Infection with Mikrocytos Mackini

What is it?

Infection with Mikrocytos mackini i is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes lethal infection of American, European, Olympia and Pacific oysters. M. mackini is the only species described in the genus and is unrelated to Bonamia spp.

Where and When Might it Occur?

Severe infections appear to be restricted to oysters over two years old.

The disease is associated with low temperature and high salinity. Most mortalities occur during AprilMay (spring in the Northern Hemisphere). There is a three to four month pre-patent period when temperatures are less than 10 C.

The Pacific oyster appears to be more resistant to the disease than other species challenged experimentally under laboratory and field conditions.


The disease is often identified by mortalities.

LOLS10在线直播下注 Gross pathological signs are:

  • focal yellowgreen lesions up to 5 mm in diameter within the body wall or on surfaces of the gonad, labial palps, gills or mantle
  • brown scars on the shell adjacent to lesions on the mantle surface
  • gaping oysters (due to impaired adductor muscle contraction).

Microscopic pathological signs are:

  • focal intracellular infection, mainly of vesicular connective tissue cells, resulting in haemocyte infiltration and tissue necrosis
  • intracellular microcell protozoa, 23 m in diameter, in vesicular connective tissue cells immediately adjacent to lesions.

LOLS10在线直播下注SOURCE: Australian Government, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry