金鲨银鲨手机版_{实时热点} 亚博体彩APP_{实时热点} 必威体育下载_{实时热点} 赌博下注法_{实时热点} 澳门足彩app_{实时热点} 足球雪缘网平台_{实时热点} 牛牛幸运森林舞会_{实时热点} 皇冠竞彩足球_{实时热点} 亚博老虎机网站_{实时热点} 巴登平台游戏_{实时热点} 皇冠体育app_{实时热点} 扑克28杠投注_{实时热点} 彩票快三代理_{实时热点} 真实赌博游戏_{实时热点} 龙虎国际城_{实时热点} 幸运飞艇app_{实时热点} 极速体育官网_{实时热点} 188体育app_{实时热点} 金博宝体育官网_{实时热点}

Infection with Xenohaliotis Californiensis

What is it?

Intracytoplasmic infections with Xenohaliotis californiensis, a rickettsial bacterium, in gastrointestinal epithelia causes disease (termed withering syndrome) in wild and farmed abalones, Haliotis spp. Withering syndrome occurs at elevated water temperatures (~18C and above) in abalones with moderate to severe infections.

Where and When Might it Occur?

Xenohaliotis californiensis occurs along the south-west coast of North America in California, LOLS10在线直播下注 and Baja California, Mexico.

However, as infected abalones have been transported to Chile, China (Peoples Rep. of), Chinese Taipei, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Spain, and Thailand and possibly other countries, the geographical range of the aetiological agent is suspected to be broad where California red abalones, Haliotis rufescens, are cultured or areas where native species have been exposed to red abalones.

Abalones with X. californiensis infections may be subclinically infected during the prepatent period or at water temperatures =15C.


Signs of the disease include pedal atrophy, mottled digestive gland, anorexia, weakness, and lethargy.

The disease is characterised by intracytoplasmic bacterial inclusions within the posterior oesophagus, intestine and absorptive/transport epithelia of the digestive gland, whereas moderate to advanced infections are typically associated with degenerative or metaplastic changes within the digestive gland, followed by pedal muscle atrophy in susceptible species.

Infected individuals may be slightly to severely emaciated (atrophied) under permissive water temperatures.


The most effective prevention is avoidance of the pathogen. Should infection occur, holding abalones at < 15C may reduce RLO transmission and subsequent disease transmission. Application of oxytetracycline reduces losses.